[00:00:01.191]For years, GALE has digitized
primary source content
from the holdings of some of the world's largest
and most prominent libraries and archives.
Through our digital collections,
GALE makes available to researchers and students
millions of pages of primary source content,
some of which has never before been digitized.
What are primary sources?
In research, a primary source is a document or artifact
that has survived in its original form
and provides you, the researcher, a firsthand account
of the event, person, or time period you're researching.
Examples of primary sources include personal accounts,
correspondences, news coverage,
documents, images, audio and video,
creative works, works of art and other artifacts,
Let's take a closer look
at some examples of primary source material.
Letters and other correspondences are also primary sources,
like this letter from William Wilberforce,
as well as speeches and interviews
like this transcription of a 1935 radio broadcast.
Articles and notices published in newspapers,
magazines, and journals are primary sources
if they were written during the event or period
or by people who witnessed the event you're researching.
Here's coverage of the presidential election of 1800
and commodity prices from 1785,
both published in newspapers of the time.
Government and legal documents,
such as this court document from 1885,
are primary source documents,
as are maps, drawings, photographs,
audio recordings and video recordings
created during the period you're researching
or by the person you're researching,
like this map of central Africa
drawn around 1890.
Even creative works such as stories,
poems and songs,
and works of art are primary sources,
like this lithograph from 1850
or this sheet music from 1899.
Clothing, consumer items,
craft items, and other artifacts
like this Confederate Army major general's coat
as well as this medicine chest from the 1700s
and this early Bayer aspirin carton
from the early 1900s
are also primary sources.
Items such as brochures, catalogs,
postcards, and posters advertising
or commemorating an event,
sometimes referred to as ephemera
since they were originally expected
to only have short term usefulness,
are also primary sources.
This advertisement and invoice
for wagon and farm equipment
from around 1890
and this women's suffrage poster
from around 1920 are great examples
of this type of primary source document.
As you can see,
primary sources paint a picture
of what life was like at a given period and time.
Secondary sources on the other hand,
often based on primary sources,
were created at a later time
by a person who did not experience the event firsthand.
The following are generally considered secondary sources,
magazine, and journal articles
about an event or about a person
written at a later time,
essays, reviews, commentaries,
and works of criticism written at a later time,
entries from dictionaries, encyclopedia,
and other reference books,
as well as scholarly works and textbooks
that were not published during the time you're researching.
While these kind of sources are thought of
as secondary sources
depending on what you're researching,
they at times can be used as primary sources
when taken as a historical record
of how people were interpreting that event
in a time earlier than ours.
Secondary source material,
unlike primary source material,
give another person's perspective,
or conclusions on an event, person, or period.
So remember, primary sources are documents
or artifacts that have survived in their original form
and provide firsthand accounts of events,
people, or a period.
They paint a picture of what life was like
at a given period in time,
and they allow you to develop your own perspectives,
or conclusions about the event, person,
or period you're researching.